Photosynthesis is a reaction that occurs when organisms convert energy from sunlight to chemical energy that can be stored as sugar for later use. Organisms such as plants, algae and some bacteria are capable of carrying out photosynthesis. These organisms create a critical biological process for all living things by releasing oxygen and taking in carbon dioxide, as well as providing food and building materials.
Algae are organisms that are capable of photosynthesis, or more commonly known as photosynthetic organisms, that are found in all aquatic habitats. Most algae are small, single-celled organisms; however, some algae can be multicellular. An example of a multicellular form is the giant kelp found in ocean water that can grow up to 65 meters long.
Plants are the more commonly known organism which are photosynthetic. There are two major types of plants that have evolved; mosses and vascular plants. Plants are an extremely important resource of the biological energy needed for animals. The plants are able to convert the sunlight energy to synthesize food through photosynthesis.
Cyanobacteria are autotrophic prokaryotes, or bacteria that make and use their own organic food from sunlight energy through the process of photosynthesis. Cyanobacteria are small unicellular organisms that form colonies, making it easy to view through a microscope. The cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll, the same pigment found in plants that is used for photosynthesis. In addition, the cyanobacteria contain thylakoids, which are needed for the reactions in photosynthesis.