# How to Write a Results Statement for a T-Test or an ANOVA ••• Creatas/Creatas/Getty Images

In statistics, ANOVA, which stands for a one-way analysis of variance, tracks the difference between the means in a data set. The program looks for variences within different groups of data. A t-test also compares the differences between means in a data. The major difference is that ANOVA tests for one-way analysis with multiple variations, while a t-test compares a paired sample. Once you gather all the data, the results statement should include three components to meet the criteria of the American Psychological Association's style.

## Results Statement for T-Test

Explain what type of test you used and the analysis you conducted in one sentence. Conclude the sentence with a description of the test's purpose. Use the statement "A paired-samples t-test was conducted to" and then describe what the data attempted to find. For instance, if you accrued data to determine whether or not exercising before taking a cognitive test had an effect on the test results, you could write "A paired-samples t-test was conducted to determine the effect of exercise on a cognitive test."

Describe whether or not a significant difference exists between your two sets of data. Start by stating "There was" or "There was not a significant difference." Then include the mean and the standard deviation of both sets of data in the same sentence. Include the two sets of data in parentheses, with "M=" for the mean and "SD=" for the standard deviation. For instance, your results of the effects on exercise would be presented as: "There was (or was not) a significant difference between the group that exercised (M=; SD=) and the group with no exercise (M=; SD=)."

Insert a semicolon, followed by the degree of freedom value in parentheses, an equal sign, the t-value, a comma, the symbol "p=" and finally the p value data. Your results statement so far will look as follows: "There was (or was not) a significant difference between the group that exercised (M=; SD=) and the group with no exercise (M=; SD=); t(_)=, p=."

Recap the results in easy-to-understand language. Consider someone who does not have a background in statistics or science, and explain the results in a concise sentence. For our example, you could write: "exercise improved the cognitive function on the test," or the reverse: "no evidence exists that exercise has an effect on cognitive reasoning."

## Results Statement for ANOVA

Describe the test type you used and the purpose of the test. Begin with "A one-way between subjects ANOVA was conducted to compare the effects of" and then write the reasons for the comparison. An ANOVA is apporpriate for multiple test subjects; for the exercise example, you may have people who performed no exercise, people who performed light exercise and people who performed heavy exercise.

Write whether or not a significant difference existed between the means of each test group. Write "There was" or "There was not a significant effect of exercise on cognitive functions among the three conditions."

Write "F", followed by a parenthesis, then the two sets of degrees of freedom values separated by a comma, followed by an equal sign and the F value. Insert a comma, followed by "p =" and end with the p value. You will have: "F (two sets of degrees of freedom) = F value, p = p value."

Write "Post hoc test comparison" if a significant result is present. You will use this if, for instance, the heavy exercise group differed significantly from the no exercise group, but the light exercise group did not differ significantly from the other two. Write the post hoc test you used, followed by the phrase "indicated that the mean score," followed by your data in parentheses; that is, M= which will be the mean, and SD= for the standard deviation. Then write the exception. The example would be "However, the light exercise did not significantly differ from the no exercise and heavy exercise conditions." Write a parenthesis, followed by "M=", followed by the mean for the light exercise, a comma, "SD=" and the standard deviation for that group.

Recap the results in an easy-to-understand sentence or two. You could write "A significant difference existed between cognitive function after heavy exercise. However, light exercise provided no significant difference in cognitive function."

#### Things You'll Need

• Means of two sets of data
• Standard deviation of two sets of data
• Degree of freedom data
• T data
• P value data
• F value data
• Post hoc test results

#### Tips

• If no significant result is present in your ANOVA result, you do not need to conduct a post hoc test comparison.

#### Warnings

• Do not use overly complicated language for the last sentence. The purpose is to make your results widely available to a large audience.

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