Hardness in water is a primary concern for industries, households and municipal water systems. The hardness in water when present in quantities above the desired level cause problems like scaling, decreased action of detergents and frequent corrosion. Besides these problems, normally the hardness in water is not harmful when found in acceptable range for both domestic and industrial uses. Brewing industry requires moderate to extremely hard water for better brewing. Hard water minerals like calcium and magnesium are required by the human body for smooth metabolic functions. Making hard water is not very difficult, it requires simple equipments and a few chemicals.
- Protective glasses
- Rubber gloves
- Calibrated beakers
- Stirring rod
- Distilled water
- Table spoon
- Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate)
- Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate)
- Calcium chloride
- Filter paper
The hardness of water is directly proportional to the amount of magnesium salt and bicarbonate present in it. Adding more salt will result in higher hardness up to a level.
Do not expose your bare skin to the chemicals.
Wear protective glasses and rubber gloves. Pour 500 milliliters of distilled water into a calibrated beaker, water level touching the 500 milliliters mark in the beaker.
Add half tablespoon of epsom salt to the distilled water. Stir well to completely dissolve the salt and make a clear solution. Calcium chloride increases the permanent hardness of water.
Add half tablespoon of baking soda to the solution. Stir the solution well to completely dissolve the baking soda. Baking soda generally increases the temporary hardness of water.
Add half table spoon calcium chloride to the solution and stir to completely dissolve calcium chloride in the solution. Calcium chloride increases the permanent hardness of water.
Leave the solution for few hours. Generally 2 hours of time will be enough for complete dissolution of the minerals into the solution.
Make a filter cone with the filter paper. Filter the solution slowly with a the filter cone into another beaker to remove any suspended material.
Things You'll Need
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