Plants & Animals of Canada

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Canada is home to a variety of biomes, or climatic regions, including grassland, deciduous forest, boreal forest and tundra. With so many different geographical regions, Canada is filled with an array of plant and animal life including approximately 190 mammal species and more than 3,000 plant species. Many of these plants and animals can be found safely tucked away in one of Canada’s 44 National Wildlife Areas.

Deciduous Trees

Riverside Birch
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The deciduous forest of Canada is located in the eastern and central region of the country. There are many different deciduous trees that grow in these forests, including vine maple, Douglas maple, red maple, Ohio buckeye and various birch and beech species. These deciduous trees can be found in forests growing around stream banks, shorelines and forest edges.


Canadian Spruce
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Conifers, or evergreen trees, are found in the boreal forests of Canada, which are located directly beneath the tundra biome region. Conifers are the most commonly found trees in Canada, as the boreal forest makes up approximately 80 percent of the country's environment. Some conifers found in Canada’s boreal forests include the Pacific silver fir, the arbutus, and multiple varieties of spruce and cedar.

Bushes and Shrubs

Wild Lilac
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There are a number of different native bushes and shrubs that can be found in the boreal forests, deciduous forests and grasslands of Canada. Bushes and shrubs can be found in upland areas, coastal areas and along shorelines. A few examples of bushes and shrubs found in Canada include green alder, saskatoon juneberry, chokecherry, wild lilac and stinky rabbitbrush.


Musk Oxen
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Various species of hoofstock can be found from the grasslands of Canada deep into the tundra. Caribou, musk oxen and reindeer all live in the cold regions of the tundra. Moose, elk, mountain goats and deer all live in the forests and grasslands.

Small Mammals

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The Canadian tundra is home only to a few small mammal species, such as lemmings, foxes and rabbits. The forests and grasslands of the country are home to a variety of small mammals like porcupine, rabbits, gray foxes, badgers, raccoons, chipmunks and squirrels.

Large Mammals

Gray Wolf
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Wolves are one of the most commonly found large mammals in Canada, as they can be found in all regions of the country. Other large mammals that can be found, primarily in the forests and grasslands of Canada, include bobcats, cougars and bears. The only bear not found in the forests and grasslands is the polar bear, which is found exclusively in the tundra region.


Snowy Owl
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The snowy owl, arctic tern, snow bunting and ptarmigan are all found in the tundra region of the country. There are many other bird species that can be found throughout other Canadian biomes, including, woodpecker, black swift, band-tailed pigeon, northern pigmy-owl, bobolink, crow and heron.

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