Sucrose, or common table sugar, is available in almost every home in America. Most know it as a white granular substance used to sweeten food and beverages. But among scientists, sugar is better known for its chemical properties. They are aware that, due to those properties, sucrose is not an aldose sugar.
Sucrose is a disaccharide, which is a complex carbohydrate molecule that is made up of two monosaccharide sugars bonded together. Both of the monosaccharides in sucrose are present in their component forms in nature. These monosaccharides are glucose and fructose.
Glucose is a sugar that is present in plants during photosynthesis. When our bodies break down sugar after consumption of food, the glucose travels to our bloodstream. Those who suffer from diabetes are not able to regulate the levels of glucose in their bodies. Because of the presence of aldehyde atomic groups in its molecular structure, glucose is an aldose sugar.
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Fructose is a sugar present in most berries, tree fruits, and melons, as well as honey. It is a simple reducing sugar, which means that it is capable of reducing the amount of chemicals in its structure through oxidation. Fructose is considered a ketone because of the presence of ketone atomic groups.
Because sucrose is a complex disaccharide, it is not classified as either an aldose or a ketone. Instead, it is a compound that contains both. It can be easily broken down into its component aldose and ketonic molecules, either during digestion in the body, or through exposure to acids such as those present in lemon juice while cooking.
Additionally, sucrose will fail tests such as Benedict's test, which are designed to detect aldose molecules present in its makeup. This is because of its unique, closed-chain type of molecular structure.