Global climates are often divided into five types: tropical, dry, temperate, cold and polar. These climate divisions take a variety of factors into consideration, including altitude, pressure, wind patterns, latitude and geographical characteristics, such as mountains and oceans. The five climate division is known as the Koppen Climate Classification System, named after founder Wladimir Koppen.
Tropical regions are characterized by high average temperatures and large amounts of rainfall. Biomes that have tropical climates include rainforest and savannas, according to Maps of World.com. The average monthly temperature in tropical climate regions is 64.4 degrees Fahrenheit and there tends to be little or no winter season.
Temperate regions are also known as mesothermal or middle latitude climates. Summers tend to be quite warm with little rainfall. Winters are moderate and wet. According to Travel-University.org, the coldest months in temperate regions tend to be between 26.6 and 64.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Temperate biomes include subtropical regions, Mediterranean areas, and marine regions.
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Polar regions are characterized by a lack of a true summer. The warmest temperatures are around 50 degrees Fahrenheit and these are short-lived. Large blocks of permanent ice and tundra are what make these regions distinctive. According to Blue Planet Biomes, polar climate regions usually only have four months of temperatures above freezing. They also tend to have months of little daylight.
Dry regions experience very little rainfall and therefore have no permanent streams, according to Travel-University. They are also marked by large ranges in daily temperatures. In the desert, for example, temperatures can reach over 120 degrees Fahrenheit during the day, but may drop to 100 degrees or less at night. Dry regions are divided into semi-arid and arid zones.
Cold regions, also known as snow, microthermal or continental climates, have moderate rainfall and high seasonal variations in temperature. These regions tend to be found in central regions of land masses, such as the American Midwest. Average summer temperatures can be anywhere from 70 to 90 degrees. In the winter, the coldest month has an average temperature below 26 degrees Fahrenheit.