Heterotrophic bacteria are a type of bacteria that take the sugars they need to survive and reproduce from their environment, rather than making the sugars themselves from carbon and hydrogen. Bacteria that do produce their own sugars from carbon and hydrogen are called autotrophic. There are many different subtypes of heterotrophic bacteria.
Photoheterotroph is the term used to describe bacteria that acquire energy from sunlight but require organic compounds like sugars from their environment to survive. Examples of photoheterotroph bacteria include heliobacteria, green non-sulfur bacteria and purple non-sulfur bacteria.
Chemoheterotroph is the term used to describe bacteria that acquire energy from chemical reactions. Like all heterotrophs they require organic compounds to survive and cannot manufacture their own. Chemoheterotrophs are often found around thermal vents in the deep ocean.
Organotroph is the term used to describe bacteria that acquire their energy from an organic substrate. Examples of hetero-organotrophs include the bacteria involved in composting.
Lithotroph is the term used to describe bacteria that acquire their energy from an inorganic substrate. Heterolithotrophic bacteria are very rare.
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