What is Glucose Made Of?

Table sugar, or sucrose, is made up of two smaller sugar molecules, glucose and fructose.
••• Polka Dot Images/Polka Dot/Getty Images

Glucose—in its basic form—is a sugar molecule. There are different types of sugars, including table sugar, which has the chemical name of sucrose. Glucose is a simpler molecule than sucrose. Both contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Even glucose itself can be in different forms and have different properties, depending on how the atoms are arranged.

Carbon

There are six carbon atoms in a glucose molecule. They can be in the form of a linear chain, or the chain can be connected to itself to make a ring.

Hydrogen

Attached to the carbon atoms are 12 hydrogen atoms.

Oxygen

Also attached to the carbon atoms are six oxygen atoms. The oxygen and hydrogen atoms can be attached to one another as well as to the carbon atoms.

Forms

There are different forms of glucose within the chain and ring types. They differ by the orientation and interconnection of their oxygen and hydrogen atoms. They also differ in how they function and behave in the human body and elsewhere in nature.

Plants

Most or all of the glucose in the human diet is traceable to plants and is manufactured in plants by photosynthesis.

Related Articles

What Type of Organic Macromolecule Is Glucose?
What Happens During Photosynthesis in Plants?
What Are the Chemical Names of the Four Macromolecules?
Which Type of Lipid Is Classified as a Ring Structure?
How Is Glucose Stored in Plant Cells?
What Is the Difference Between a Monosaccharide and...
Where Is Starch Stored in Plant Cells?
The Most Common Organic Molecules in Cells
What Role Does Chlorophyll Play in Photosynthesis?
What Is a Carbohydrate Found in a Cell Wall of Plant...
What Are the Polymers of Lipids?
How Does a Plant Convert Light Energy to Chemical Energy?
Describe What a Photosystem Does for Photosynthesis
Organelles Involved in Photosynthesis
10 Facts on Photosynthesis
Characteristics of Aquatic Plants
What Is an Olefin in Chemistry?
How Are Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Related?