The field of statistics uses a number called the probability value (“p-value”) to describe the percentage likelihood that the results of a research study occurred by chance. Ronald A. Thisted, a professor of statistics at the University of Chicago, describes the p-value as a number that “measures consistency between the results actually obtained in the trial and the ‘pure chance’ explanation for those results.” The TI-83, a graphing calculator manufactured by Texas Instruments, is capable of calculating the p-value for a normal distribution, student’s t-distribution and chi-square distribution.

Press the “On” button.

Press the button labeled “2nd” and then the button labeled “VARS” to access the distribution menu.

Press the number “2” to select the second option on the menu, “normalcdf,“ to calculate the p-value of a normal distribution. Press the number “5” to select the fifth option on the menu, “tcdf,“ to calculate the p-value for a student’s t-distribution. Press the number “7” to select the seventh option on the menu, “X^2cdf,” to calculate the p-value for a chi-square distribution.

Enter the lower bound of the data set.

Insert a comma.

Enter the upper bound of the data set.

Insert a comma.

Enter the mean of the data set.

Insert a comma.

Enter the standard of deviation of the data set.

Press “Enter.”